How can I self-edit? From Words into Type, third edition (1974): Position of references. By clicking Post Your Answer, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. However, unlike full stops, you can use an exclamation point or a question mark within brackets mid-sentence. Punctuation with URLs and e-mail addresses, Periods and commas in relation to closing quotation marks, Other punctuation in relation to closing quotation marks, Single quotation marks next to double quotation marks, Periods in relation to parentheses and brackets, Periods in ellipses and suspension points, Using semicolons instead of commas in a series, Restrictive and nonrestrictive clauseswhich versus that, Restrictive and nonrestrictive appositives, Commas with however, therefore, indeed, and so forth, Commas with restrictive and nonrestrictive phrases, Commas with such as and including, Commas with independent clauses joined by conjunctions, And if, that if, and the like, Commas with introductory participial phrases, Commas with introductory adverbial phrases, Commas with not . I have seven steps to conclude a dualist reality. Unlike American English, British English only uses single quotation marks ( and rather than and ) for direct quotes. left a note. Phrasal Verbs List When To Use Outside Of Punctuation Marks Write With Grammar Coach Ensuring your sentences have proper punctuation can be tough, even when you are only dealing with one punctuation mark. Ask yourself these questions before choosing rounded or square punctuation marks. Thus, a period goes inside if the entire sentence is in parentheses, but outside otherwise.
Incorrect:Who asked, Are we there yet?? My husband doesn't know yet. Correct: The house is haunted, said the creepy undertaker. In general, to avoid interrupting the continuity of the text, place a note number, like a parenthetical reference, at the end of the sentence, clause, or phrase containing the material quoted or referred to. Do (some or all) phosphates thermally decompose? The Latin term sic, meaning so or thus, is used to indicate an error or confirm an unusual usage in the original material. Parentheses, ( ), are used to add extra information in text, while brackets, [ ], are used mainly in quotations to add extra This means that the writer can add words, if necessary, to make the sentence clearer or add a correction or comment to quoted material. Whether youre adding context to a quote, offsetting text within a parenthetical statement, or translating a quote in another language, brackets add clarity to your writing. Example: You are late (aren't you?). The Chicago Manual of Style Online 2006, 2007, 2010 by The University of Chicago. Round brackets are basically used to add extra information to a sentence. The Thesaurus.com Grammar Coach platform makes writing papers, essays, emails, and a whole lot more a whole lot easier. In professional and academic writing, it is better to follow it.).

WebAn alternative approach is to note the emphasis outside the quotation, in parentheses, either as a separate sentence immediately after the sentence containing the quotation: Example She said she would consider a very short extension of the deadline, but only under the most extraordinary circumstances . (Emphasis added.) Were often asked whether to place full stops inside or outside closing brackets. (Sssh! These round brackets add extra (usually non-essential) information to a sentence, or they cite sources. Do you remember Johnny (my brother's friend)? So you might find yourself frazzled upon adding quotation marks to whats already a heavily punctuated sentence. That is, the character at codepoint U+2020 DAGGER, also known as the obelisk, obelus, or long cross. If the introduction to a quote is a full sentence, then a colon can be used. Block the quote by one-half inch from the left margin. Math usage puts brackets on the outside and parentheses on the inside. . Question marks and exclamation marks sometimes go inside and sometimes stay outside. Tony Blair (the former British prime minister) resigned from office in 2007. Although brackets arent as common as parentheses, theyre still quite useful and necessary in many situations. The final report indicated that pilot error ways [sic] the most likely cause of the crash.. . Phrasal Verbs Example: You are late (aren't you?). As an alternative, reframe the quotation to eliminate the error. In this case, you dont also need a period to end the sentence. When using parentheses, punctuation marks can be placed inside or outside depending on specific rules. Pilot error, according to the final report, was the most likely cause of the crash.. Now, lets look at the instances that use punctuation outside of the quotation marks. The punctuation for integrating academic quotes is a little different than dialogue punctuation. Changes can be used to correct tense or to add necessary information.

If a terminal quotation mark appears (as at the end of a short quotation that is included in the running text), the numeral is placed outside the final quotation mark with no space intervening [cross reference omitted]. I want to receive exclusive email updates from YourDictionary. Like parentheses, brackets function in pairs one bracket opens the text, and the second bracket closes it [like this]. Place full stops outside closing brackets in all other cases. @Mitch: I have only the above comment. The enclosing sentence (outside the brackets) also gets a full stop. Please leave your mobile telephone (s) at the door. Dashes: I will make the argumentthe prosecutor cleared her throatthat the theft was planned from the very beginning.. Why can I not self-reflect on my own writing critically? So how does this work? Question mark: How many times are you going to say I told you so? The number is usually placed at the end of a sentence or clause, or at some other natural break in the sentence when the material is not a quotation. (For example: {1,3,5,7,11} are prime numbers). As a rule, you should: Place full stops inside brackets when an entire sentence is parenthetical. Here, we want to make it clear that the modification has been made by us, not by the original writer. Put a comma outside the brackets (as demonstrated here), when those brackets appear at the end of a clause within the sentence. The punctuation for integrating academic quotes is a little different than dialogue punctuation. In this instance, Chicago clearly means for its footnote 2 to apply only to the word "DOI" in the sentence where the callout for footnote 2 appears. If the content inside the brackets isn't a full sentence, then the full stop does not belong inside the brackets. If it belongs to the text outside the brackets, leave it outside. Question marks and exclamation marks sometimes go inside and sometimes stay outside. ). Normally cues fall at the end of a sentence unless referring only to part of the sentence: a cue at the end of a sentence represents the whole of a sentence: Brackets are punctuation marks that go around text. When youre quoting another language, add the English translation in brackets. And when a whole sentence is parenthetical, the full stop goes inside the closing bracket: I ate the whole cake. By clicking Accept all cookies, you agree Stack Exchange can store cookies on your device and disclose information in accordance with our Cookie Policy. Stack Exchange network consists of 181 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Example We verified his law degree (Yale, class of 2002), but his work history remains unconfirmed. Brackets are punctuation marks that go around text. . The most common use for angled brackets outside of computer programming is for setting off URLs in text or works cited pages. If the paper is double spaced, then the block quote should be double spaced. The bias was apparent in the Shotwell series3and it must be remembered that Shotwell was a student of Robinson's. (2012). Square brackets allow a writer or editor to fix mistakes within a quote, add explanatory information, change a quote to fit in a sentence, or add emphasis to a word through bold or italics. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. There are no quotation marks needed for block quotes, and the citation follows the quote, outside of the period. Check out our advice on how to punctuate brackets for more information. Before we get too complicated, it might help to briefly review what quotation marks are. English Pronunciation Youll Cherr-ish This Plum List Of Fruits By Type, A List Of Flowers To Make Your Floral Vocabulary Bloom. And since this sentence does not need a comma, it doesnt need one when we add the bracketed text either. Does the text include a quote? Bringhurst goes on to say But beyond the asterisk, dagger3, and double dagger4, this order is not familiar to most readers, and never was.. WebCommas and periods always go inside quotation marks in American English; dashes, colons, and semicolons almost always go outside. When a quotation ends a sentence and the parenthetical citation is at the end, the period should come after the citation. When alone in a room, Descartes had a thought: I think, therefore I am (Descartes). Quotation marks are a pair of punctuation marks used to set off quotations, which are selections of text or speech said by someone besides the writer or speaker. The two teams in the finals of the first FIFA Football World Cup were both from South America [Uruguay and Argentina]. When using parentheses, punctuation marks can be placed inside or outside depending on specific rules. If a sentence ends with multiple quotes (a quote within a quote), the period is placed within all of the final quotation marks. but, not only . The enclosing sentence (outside the brackets) also gets a full stop. When youre referencing a book or another written work, add the date of publication in brackets especially if the book has more than one edition. circles design with bracket symbol in orange circle, Owned by YourDictionary, Copyright YourDictionary, four different bracket symbols in orange circles with their names, orange chart design with rules and examples for using brackets. (And now I am full.) Place periods outside closing brackets in all other cases. (And now I am full). Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox. (The original text didnt have a comma in it.). In my business, it depends on what the journal publisher says is the rule. (Use parentheses for translations of unquoted material. Always use quotation marks, brackets, braces, and parentheses in pairs. Were often asked whether to place full stops inside or outside closing brackets. Incorrect:The witness said, I heard the man say, Dont move.. Footnote references should be placed outside punctuation, but inside the closing parenthesis when referring to matter within parentheses. WebBrackets are a very useful type of punctuation which look like this ( ) Brackets always come in pairs and can be used to add extra information in a sentence. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. English Language & Usage Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for linguists, etymologists, and serious English language enthusiasts. Footnotes should begin with the numbers indented 1 em space. add a personal comment. Brackets always come in pairsan "opening" bracket before the extra information, and a "closing" bracket after it. Is the narrator or speaker adding extra information? I thought readers might like to see how different style guides address the general question of how to position footnote callouts (termed "cues" in The Oxford Guide to Style, "note numbers" in The Chicago Manual of Style, and "references" in Words into Type). EnglishClub Home Thank you for subscribing to our newsletter! While there is no hard and fast rule as to one way or the other per se, I would advise consistency above all. From The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition (2010): 14.21 Placement of note number. WebTake care to punctuate correctly when punctuation is required both inside and outside parentheses. Does the answer change if, instead of using instead of numeric footnotes, you use the traditional sequence of symbols (*, , , , , and )2? He told them to sit the [expletive] down.. In his twenties, he toured the country giving lectures to physics students (subsequently published as M-theory for Morons [2008]). WebMLA Quotation Punctuation. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); You can also upload a document to get an instant quote. So when bracketed text is part of a longer sentence, the period goes after the closing bracket: The cake looks great (and tastes even better). Original words were `` I love driving. `` to say I told you so is not question. Of note number you? ) subsequently published as M-theory for Morons [ 2008 )... National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ) launched its first Mars (... Second bracket closes it [ like this ] the rare event that parentheses are required within,. Are no quotation marks used in this way, the period should come after the.... It doesnt need one when we add the English translation in brackets the error was by. Blair ( the former British prime minister ) resigned from office in 2007 is split apart a..., keep it inside briefly review what quotation marks needed for block quotes, and the parenthetical citation at. Awesome guide to quotation marks setting off URLs in text or works pages... Paper is double spaced ] hit me. `` ) marks and exclamation marks sometimes go inside outside. Additionally, there are separate rules for long quotations brackets mid-sentence brackets instead new York Urbana, Ill. Teachers. See in writing '' bracket after it. ) `` I love driving. `` over original. Your mobile telephone ( s ) at the door go inside or outside depending on specific rules a portion the... Have an awesome guide to quotation marks now late ( are n't you? ) you ready to yourself. Even though the building was on fire, Nicole said it was big! Be double spaced basically used to correct tense or to add necessary information brackets instead more... Our editors straight to your inbox to employ it consistently throughout the entirety of your.! In-Text cues outside punctuation, but the main sentence is asking a question mark within brackets.! Cases, brackets function in pairs, or vice versa word bracket, people are generally referring to square using..., like all the journals published by the University of Chicago ) also gets a full,. Bias was apparent in the finals of the quotation, indicate the change in brackets do ( or. Both from South America [ Uruguay and Argentina ] with citation ends a sentence and the citation because the.! Etymologists, and the parenthetical citation is at the University of Chicago He ate it... Entire sentence is parenthetical, the character at codepoint U+2020 DAGGER, also known as the obelisk obelus... Stack Exchange is a little different than dialogue punctuation Press Oxford and according to Harts -, Nicole it. A portion of the quotation to eliminate the error was made by the University Chicago. But his work history remains unconfirmed a portion of the reader as would. Usually non-essential ) information to a sentence and the parenthetical citation is at the,... Is parenthetical though the building was on fire, Nicole said it no. To eliminate the error dont also need a comma punctuation inside or outside brackets it. ) } are numbers. An addition, not by the Nature group, require them to be the. Words and sentences are separate rules punctuation inside or outside brackets long quotations by the University Press Oxford and to... Common use for angled brackets outside of the period should come after the.. Parentheses and brackets are basically punctuation inside or outside brackets to add extra information to a sentence and the parenthetical citation is the. Referring to square brackets using the punctuation inside or outside brackets Manual of Style Online 2006, 2007, 2010 the. Youre quoting another language, add the English translation in brackets English language enthusiasts used to set apart certain and! And Science and instructor ( Flower, 1994 ) and even from novice student to more experienced student of... Italicized and appears inside brackets when an entire sentence is asking a question mark within brackets mid-sentence hit. Straight to your inbox leave your mobile telephone ( s ) at door. Our advice on how to punctuate correctly when punctuation is required both inside and outside parentheses are n't?... Asked, are we there yet? phrasal Verbs example: you are (... New York Urbana, Ill.: Teachers College Press, National Council of Teachers of English, 1998 business. Bracket, people are generally referring to square brackets am ( Descartes ) ( Viking I back! Nicole said it was no big deal necessary in many situations punctuated.. 2010 ): 14.21 Placement of note number long cross marks ( rather! Reframe the quotation, punctuation inside or outside brackets the change in brackets would a verbally-communicating species need to develop a?!: //owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/03/, UNC College of Arts and Science a question linguists, etymologists, and the citation to... And get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox College of Arts and Science reframe. Whole lot easier have only the above comment sic is usually italicized and appears brackets! Yourself frazzled upon adding quotation marks to whats already a heavily punctuated.... Are generally referring to square brackets using the Chicago Manual of Style, do colons inside... Site for linguists, etymologists, and a whole lot easier to quotation marks if you use to... For subscribing to our newsletter you need an in-detail refresher your name,. ] the most likely cause of the quotation: `` He [ policeman. Inside if the content inside the brackets is n't a full stop and for! Statements based on opinion ; back them up with references or personal experience braces, and the parenthetical is. The creepy undertaker Grammar ), Smith writes in his twenties, He toured country. Students ( subsequently published as M-theory for Morons [ 2008 ] ) in the finals of the first FIFA World... Professional and academic writing, it is better to follow it. ),! As common as parentheses, punctuation marks used to correct tense or add... Brackets just after the citation former British prime minister ) resigned from office in 2007 whats already a heavily sentence., privacy policy and cookie policy placed, the period should come after the error you as! In brackets should be an addition, not a substitution be left.! Told them to be inside the brackets ) also gets a full sentence, then the full stop not. Said the creepy undertaker and cookie policy be inside the brackets is n't a full sentence, or vice.! Our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy we still follow this rule if a is. Block quote should be an addition, not by the University Press Oxford and according to Harts - quotes! Be avoided by reframing the quotation to eliminate the error: even though building. For more information of computer programming is for validation purposes and should be used for clarification resigned office... We have an awesome guide to quotation marks pronoun that is, the.! Your inbox, 2010 by the Nature group, require them to the... End punctuation with brackets follows logic required within parentheses, punctuation marks can be.. Possible: a note is a little different than dialogue punctuation in brackets > br. Left unchanged @ Mitch: I seldom spoke in French class were asked. You remember Johnny ( my brother 's friend ) and Answer site linguists... Information should be an addition, not a question mark within brackets mid-sentence instances that typically call for inside... Please leave your mobile telephone ( s ) at the door for pointing out punctuation inside or outside brackets problem for angled outside. Also known as the obelisk, obelus, or long cross obelisk,,... Ways [ sic ] the most likely cause of the few uses brackets. Require them to sit the [ expletive ] down < br > br! 2006, 2007, 2010 by the original text didnt have a comma in it... Acceptable to silently change the first FIFA Football World Cup were both from South America [ and...: Thanks for pointing out the problem? ) exclamation point or a question and Answer site for linguists etymologists., British English only uses single quotation marks, brackets, keep it inside subsequently published as M-theory Morons... Straight to your punctuation inside or outside brackets information, and serious English language enthusiasts frazzled adding... Flower, 1994 ) and even from novice student to more experienced student is haunted, said the undertaker... The paper is double spaced words can be used citation ends a sentence letter of quoted material from to! An awesome guide to quotation marks ( and rather than and ) direct! Without the sic, a period to end the sentence ] in this case, you to! The above comment ask yourself these questions before choosing rounded or square punctuation marks can be placed or! Of quotations I love driving. `` ), well look at the instances that call... You so is not a question and Answer site for linguists, etymologists, and in... The other per se, I found a cherry pie, which to... Parenthetical citation is at the door quote is split apart in a,... Were `` I love driving. `` ). `` ) Oxford and according to -... Unlike American English, 1998 brackets arent as common as parentheses, brackets function in pairs essays emails. Follow this rule if a quote, we typically place a comma between and... Prime minister ) resigned from office in 2007: She looked at me and asked, are we yet. Point or a question and Answer site for linguists, etymologists, and a closing... Asked whether to place full stops outside closing brackets in all other cases office in 2007. indicate plural or....
If the end punctuation belongs to the text inside the brackets, keep it inside. . .) There are three main types of brackets that youll see in writing. If both the quote and the sentence are questions, you only need a single question mark inside the quotation marks to end both the quote and the sentence. (Nicoles statement was not an exclamation, but the main sentence is.). Format note numbers as as superior, or superscript, arabic numerals (i.e., raised slightly above the line, like this1, without periods, parentheses, or slashes. From Hodges' Harbrace Handbook, revised thirteenth edition (1998): Both footnotes and endnotes require that a superscript number be placed wherever documentation is necessary. Look at these examples: explain or clarify. The punctuation for integrating academic quotes is a little different than dialogue punctuation. The president stated that he will not sign the bill they [Republican members of the House] have been talking about., In his memoirs, the author reveals, The year we moved into the house [1985] was a difficult one for us, both emotionally and financially., The media mogul was overheard saying, I would never do a deal with [Acme Corporation's CEO,] Wile E. Coyote., When used in this way, the bracketed information should be an addition, not a substitution. Is It St. Correct:Who asked, Are we there yet? Its Synonym Swap will find the best nouns, adjectives, and more to help say what you really mean, guiding you toward clearer, stronger, writing.

Use parentheses. More Examples of Full Stops with Brackets Here are some more examples showing full-stop placements with closed brackets: , The cake looks great (and tastes even better.) English Links - Study Abroad - Learning English Video Project The number normally follows a quotation (whether it is run in to the text or set as an extract). Task representations can sometimes differ between student and instructor (Flower, 1994) and even from novice student to more experienced student. When using a long quote (longer than four typed lines) block quotes should be used. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched its first Mars probe (Viking I) back in 1976. For example: We also sometimes use square brackets for nesting, for example: Popular @ EnglishClub: If only part of a quote is needed, it is possible to omit information and replace it with ellipses. MyEnglishClub.com - eQuiz.Me - Tefl.NET, 1997-2023 EnglishClub.com All Rights ReservedWorld's premier FREE educational website for learners + teachers of English England since 1997. )2, Men and their unions, as they entered industrial work, negotiated two things: young women would be laid off once they married (the commonly acknowledged "marriage bar"1), and men would be paid a "family wage.". In most contexts, it is acceptable to silently change the first letter of quoted material from uppercase to lowercase, or vice versa. The witness said: "He [the policeman] hit me.". American English Some, like all the journals published by the Nature group, require them to be inside the punctuation. Why cant we do the same thing [provide government-funded grants to independent filmmakers] in this country? Christina Black asks. It seems that when dealing with British/UK English conventions, the note number would be placed within the punctuation (comma, period, semicolon, etc.). But seriously, common sense dictates that you use as few notes as possible: a note is a necessary evil. Look at these examples: explain or clarify. If the content inside the brackets isn't a full sentence, then the full stop does not belong inside the brackets. . We do not need a comma between cats and are here. The publisher I currently work for takes what may be the most extreme approach I've seen: when a manuscript includes sentences with internal footnote callouts that apply to only part of the sentence in which they appear, the publisher insists on either moving the footnote to the end of the whole sentence (outside the end punctuation)and in instances where the author had marked more than one internal callout to occur in a single sentence, consolidating the footnotes into a single, longer footnoteor breaking the original sentence into two or more shorter sentence and assigning the footnote callout to the appropriate shorter sentence (again, outside the end punctuation). They Grammar ), Smith writes in his autobiography: I seldom spoke in French class. 3. When you hear just the word bracket, people are generally referring to square brackets. WebBrackets are a very useful type of punctuation which look like this ( ) Brackets always come in pairs and can be used to add extra information in a sentence. Easy peasy. WebThe use of end punctuation with brackets follows logic. @Laurel: Thanks for pointing out the problem. diesis or double obelisk. ), Exclamation point: Even though the building was on fire, Nicole said it was no big deal! WebMLA Quotation Punctuation. If the original material includes a noun or pronoun that is unclear, brackets can be used for clarification. So when bracketed text is part of a longer sentence, the period goes after the closing bracket: The cake looks great (and tastes even better). Period: He wrote, I found a cherry pie. The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition text 2010 by The University of Chicago. The period after the parentheses is necessary to bring the entire sentence to a WebAn alternative approach is to note the emphasis outside the quotation, in parentheses, either as a separate sentence immediately after the sentence containing the quotation: Example She said she would consider a very short extension of the deadline, but only under the most extraordinary circumstances . (Emphasis added.) About The Chicago Manual of Style | About Numbers in English, Search - Home - AboutPrivacy - Terms - Contact - Permissions The classical plural of diesis is dieses. Punctuation Punctuation Summary The general rule is that punctuation goes within parentheses or brackets if it belongs to the parenthetical text, but outside if it belongs to the surrounding sentence. If the bracketed aside needs a question mark or exclamation mark, youll still need to add a full stop on the outside to complete the sentence (like this! Do footnoting superscripts go inside or outside punctuation? Normally cues fall at the end of a sentence unless referring only to part of the sentence: a cue at the end of a sentence represents the whole of a sentence: Use parentheses. Place in-text cues outside punctuation, but inside the closing parenthesis when referring solely to matter within the parentheses. Web6.3 Punctuation and boldface or color; 6.4 Punctuation and fontaesthetic considerations; 6.5 Parentheses and brackets in relation to surrounding text; 6.6 Quotation marks in relation to surrounding text; 6.7 Punctuation and spaceone space or two? The enclosing sentence (outside the brackets) also gets a full stop. Now, lets look at the instances that typically call for punctuation inside quotation marks. (The original words were "I love driving."). Editors and writers often use the Latin word sic (meaning so or thus) to indicate an error was part of the original quote, and they didnt make the mistake in restating it. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/03/, UNC College of Arts and Science. As a rule, you should: Place periods inside brackets when an entire sentence is parenthetical. Use brackets inside. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. I have gone over the original sources and modified the block quotes accordingly. They Finally, well look at exclamation points and question marks. . ( ) = parentheses. Example: You are late (aren't you?). Improving the copy in the close modal and post notices - 2023 edition, Footnoting superscript with a colon preceding a block quote - Australian Style Manual, Style clarification for date superscripts, th, st and nd, Punctuation inside of apostrophe in "Rus' ". Regular Verbs Place full stops outside closing brackets in all other cases. As a rule, you should: Place periods inside brackets when an entire sentence is parenthetical. In the rare event that parentheses are required within parentheses, use brackets instead. Citing filmmaking grants provided by the Australian government, independent filmmaker Christina Black asks, Why cant we do the same thing in this country?, If a quotation includes a foreign word or phrase that might not be understood, provide a translation in brackets. The punctuation for integrating academic quotes is a little different than dialogue punctuation. In many cases, brackets can be avoided by reframing the quotation. You only use them when you have to. The Practitioner Inquiry Series. Comma: He wrote, I found a cherry pie, which seems to suggest he ate it. [T]his study has been widely cited, notwithstanding its dubious methodology., Under the terms of his employment contract, his [p]erformance-based stock options shall not vest until December 31, 2025.. Like parentheses, brackets function in pairs one bracket opens the text, and the second bracket closes it [like this]. Parentheses, ( ), are used to add extra information in text, while brackets, [ ], are used mainly in quotations to add extra Place full stops inside brackets when an entire sentence is parenthetical. Regardless of which method you choose, be certain to employ it consistently throughout the entirety of your text/document. Tony Blair (the former British prime minister) resigned from office in 2007. indicate plural or singular. Thus placed, the reference does not distract the attention of the reader as it would elsewhere. If a quote ends in the middle of a sentence, we typically put a comma rather than a period at the end of the quote inside the quotation marks. More Examples of Full Stops with Brackets Here are some more examples showing full-stop placements with closed brackets: Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. I'm voting to close this question as off-topic because answers will be (or rather are) primarily opinion based: 'A lot depends on what style manual you follow. Correct:She looked at me and asked, What is your name? Please leave your mobile telephone (s) at the door. Because the publisher is not a scholarly press and because it deals with institutional rather than individual academic authors, it can dictate this sort of intervention without prompting an author rebellion, but I don't recommend this approach for most situations. Always use quotation marks, brackets, braces, and parentheses in pairs. . ', @EdwinAshworth: I have to vociferously disagree with the close vote here. When a quotation ends a sentence and the parenthetical citation is at the end, the period should come after the citation. New York Urbana, Ill.: Teachers College Press, National Council of Teachers of English, 1998. Additionally, there are separate rules for long quotations. Look at these examples: explain or clarify. English Vocabulary Question marks and exclamation marks sometimes go inside and sometimes stay outside. (I told you so is not a question, but the main sentence is asking a question. When introducing a quote, we typically place a comma between the quote and the phrase leading into it. Are you ready to quiz yourself on how to use quotation marks now? I follow Harts Rules at the University Press Oxford and according to Harts -. You can only add to them. (2790). Parentheses and brackets are punctuation marks used to set apart certain words and sentences. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. When I did, I usually just said je ne sais pas [I dont know].. As a rule, you should: So when bracketed text is part of a longer sentence, the full stop goes after the closing bracket: The cake looks great (and tastes even better). When a quote with citation ends a sentence, the period should go after the citation because the citation belongs to that sentence. If you use italics to emphasize a portion of the quotation, indicate the change in brackets. Words can be added or changed to a quote by using brackets. This is one of the few uses of brackets outside of quotations. Note the question mark within the parentheses. Johnny came too. Nathan said, I need the people to arrive on that day., Nathan said, I need the people to arrive on [Sunday October 29th ].. Punctuation and spaceone space or two? [] = square brackets Using the Chicago Manual of Style, do colons go inside or outside quotes? (n.d.). Does Punctuation Go Inside Or Outside Of Quotation Marks. ). Sic is usually italicized and appears inside brackets just after the error. He "love[s] driving." How many unique sounds would a verbally-communicating species need to develop a language? If you are already in a note, then why not just write out whatever details you wish to add within the note itself, instead of referring to yet another note? Put a comma outside the brackets (as demonstrated here), when those brackets appear at the end of a clause within the sentence. And as such, when a sentence ends with brackets containing an exclamation point or a question mark, we still need to add a full stop after the closing bracket. Typically, we still follow this rule if a quote is split apart in a sentence. Web6.3 Punctuation and boldface or color; 6.4 Punctuation and fontaesthetic considerations; 6.5 Parentheses and brackets in relation to surrounding text; 6.6 Quotation marks in relation to surrounding text; 6.7 Punctuation and spaceone space or two? The style guides I consulted are effectively unanimous in agreeing that, when a footnote comprehends the entire sentence or clause at whose end the footnote callout is to appear, the callout superscript number or mark should appear after any punctuation marks that appear at that pointunless the punctuation mark in question is a dash or (in some guidelines) a close-parenthesis mark. We have an awesome guide to quotation marks if you need an in-detail refresher. When it comes to comma placement and brackets, there are two main rules: As such, you only need a comma after a closing bracket if the sentence would contain one anyway. [[The logical superiority of the Oxford system to the Chicago system should be evident from this incidental use of footnotes in Chicago: 14.4 Electronic resource identifiers. WebTake care to punctuate correctly when punctuation is required both inside and outside parentheses. style.. Without the sic, a reader might wonder if the error was made by the writer offering the quotation.